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The following index covers the body text of this book but not the text of the WTO Agreements. Disputes have been indexed under the name of the WTO Member respondent in the dispute and under the subject matter.

Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Z

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data collection period (AD 2 and AD 3)

absence of provision AD 171, 179, 191, 222

Anti-Dumping Practices Committee Recommendation (2000) AD 13, 222

legal status AD 175, 222 n. 309

causal link, need for AD 17980, 18991, 197

frequency of analysis for AD 3.2 purposes AD 221

length of period for AD 3.2 purposes AD 222

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1) and AD 1723, 180, 18990, 1967

public notice of determination (AD 12.2), inclusion of reasons for AD 13, 830

use of different periods

dumping/injury determinations AD 173, 197

injury factors AD 172


data collection period (AD 5.8) (determination of negligible import volumes) 8407–8


data collection period (AD 10.6) AD 733


data collection period (AD 11.3) (review of anti-dumping duties), specification, relevance AD 788


data collection period (SCM 15.1/15.2) SCM 423, 438


Decision on implementation-related concerns (2000)

AD 7 AD 338, 9756

adoption (Doha 12) WTO 56, 67

AG 15 (special and differential treatment) AG 150

Customs Valuation Agreement (VAL) (para. 8) VAL 69

least-developed countries and: see least-developed countries (LDCs); Decision on implementation-related concerns (2000) and

as “relevant document” WTO 56

SCM 3.1(a), exemption of least-developed countries SCM 530

SCM Committee, instructions to SCM 3512

SPS Agreement (para. 3): see Equivalence, Decision on Implementation of SPS 4 (26 October 2001)

two-track approach WTO 116


decision-making procedures (WTO IX) WTO 196212

authoritative interpretation (WTO IX:2): see interpretation of covered agreements, responsibility for authoritative (WTO IX:2)

consensus (WTO IX:1) WTO 196, 273

Decision-Making Procedures Under Articles IX and XII of the WTO Agreement, General Council decision (1995) WTO 196


decisions, procedures and customary practices under GATT 1947 (WTO XVI:1): see GATT 1947/WTO continuity; decisions, procedures and customary practices under GATT 1947 (WTO XVI:1)/provisions of legal instruments in force under GATT 1947 (GATT 1994 1(b)) (GATT acquis)


delegations: see composition of delegation


determination of dumping (AD 2)

calculation of dumping margins (AD 2.4)

averaging periods AD 1301

calculation of “all other” anti-dumping duty rate (AD 9.4), applicability to AD 7012

comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2) AD 11617, 7012

“comparable” AD 11823, 356, 3579

imposition and collection of anti-dumping duties (AD 9), relevance AD 142 n. 204

multiple averaging (AD 2.4.2) AD 1289

non-comparable types AD 1245

objective assessment for purposes of initiation of anti-dumping investigation (AD 5.3) and AD 36970

refund of duties or taxes (AD 2.4.2/GATT VI:4) GATT 4789

sampling of domestic transactions AD 1267

targeted dumping AD 142

zeroing and AD 11215, 11923, 6889

downstream sales AD 26

“margins” of dumping (AD 2.4.2) AD 11315

“margin of dumping” (GATT VI:2), equivalence GATT 453

method, right to choose, GATT VI:2 and GATT 463

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2): see “zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2)

calculation of normal value, factors to be taken into account (AD 2.1)

AD 3.6 and AD 40

affiliated party transactions AD 25

comparability of price AD 245

“like product” AD 24

sale “destined for consumption in exporting country” AD 245

GATT VI:1(a) compared GATT 481

sales “in ordinary course of trade” AD 24, 279

calculation of SG&A costs (AD 2.2.2)

actual books and records as basis AD 48, 66

actual data “pertaining to” AD 56

low-volume sales data AD 5760

non-verifiable data AD 59

“any other reasonable method” (AD 2.2.2(iii)) AD 76

freedom to choose method AD 63

reasonability test, relevance AD 735

reasonable reflection of costs associated with the production and sale of article AD 48

sales not in the normal course of trade, exclusion AD 6970

“same general category of products” (AD 2.2.2(i)) AD 657

AD 2.2.2 and AD 66

AD 3.6 and AD 67

“weighted average” (AD 2.2.2(ii))

of “actual amounts incurred and realized” AD 6970

by value or volume AD 712

single exporter or producer, sufficiency AD 68, 703

constituent elements, intention and (AD 2/GATT VI:1) GATT 454

cost data (AD

allocation of costs, need for explanation AD 55

burden of proof AD 51

“in accordance with generally accepting accounting principles” AD 47

“negative” nature of obligations (“what is not prohibited…”) AD 49

non-recurring costs (NRCs) AD 525

“reasonable period of time” AD 46

“reasonably reflect costs” requirement AD 47, 48

“shall consider all available evidence” AD 50

data collection period: see data collection period (AD 2 and AD 3)

definitions, “dumping” and “margin of dumping”, identity of meaning throughout AD Agreement AD 16, 404

export price, construction in absence of [reliable] actual export price AD 24

fair comparison (AD 2.4) distinguished AD 72

fair comparison of export price and normal value (AD 2.4)

affiliated party transactions AD 25

construction of normal value (AD 2.2) distinguished AD 72

determination of individual margins (AD 6.10) distinguished AD 625 n. 858, 643

“due allowance”

“costs … incurred between importation and resale” AD 102

differences in “terms and conditions of sale” AD 98100

“differences which affect price comparability” AD 917

“in each case, on its merits” AD 8890

legal effect/ “should also be made” AD 101

risk of bankruptcy, relevance AD 98100

for unforeseeable costs AD 102

exchange rates and (AD 2.4.1) AD 107

determination of relevant currency AD 109

general “fair comparison” requirement and AD 11011

when “required” AD 1089

“fair comparison” AD 805

burden of proof AD 80, 89

as independent obligation AD 81

responsibility for AD 103

“shall indicate … what information is necessary” AD 1056

zeroing (AD 9.3) and AD 825

NMEs and (Note 2 Ad Article VI:1) GATT 4559, AD 1556

accession protocols, inclusion in GATT 4559, AD 1667

as exceptional method GATT 455, 481

preparatory work (VCLT 32) GATT 459

object and purpose AD 80, 102

“sales made at as nearly as possible the same time” AD 87

investigating authorities’ right to request information AD 36

“like product” (AD 2.1) AD 202

“like product” (AD 2.6) AD 78, 1514

“normal value … in the ordinary course of trade” (AD 2.1)

fair exercise of discretion AD 29

prices above or below ordinary course of trade price AD 313

sales not in normal course of trade, exclusion AD 30

scrutiny rules AD 34

period of investigation (POI)

changes during, relevance AD 1415

developments during period of investigation, relevance AD 1415

extension in course of investigation (AD, Annex II, para. 1) AD 540

records kept by the exporter or producer under investigation, limitation to AD 47

relationship between

AD 2 and AD 5 AD 34954, 356

AD 2.1, 2.3 and 2.4 AD 37

sales not “in the ordinary course of trade” (AD 2.2)

AD 2.1/GATT VI:1(a) distinguished GATT 481

affiliated party transactions AD 35

alternative methods, possibility of AD 28, 42

low-volume sales and AD 612

sales below cost, method for determining whether (AD 2.2.1) AD 425

weighted average (AD 2.2.2(ii)) and AD 6970

sampling (AD 6.10): see sampling (AD 6.10)


determination of injury (AD 3)

causal relationship, manner of evaluating (AD 3.5)

AD 3.2/AD 3.4 and AD 170, 257

non-attribution to dumped imports of injury caused by other factors (AD 3.5) AD 275, 276, 2836

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1) and AD 216

SG 4.2(b) compared AD 285, 323, 1010

country by country analysis/cumulative assessment of volume and prices (AD 3.3) AD 23540

sunset review (AD 11.3), applicability to AD 796

cumulative assessment (AD 3.3)

applicability to volume and prices analysis (AD 3.2) AD 236, 237

“conditions of competition” (AD 3.3(b)) and AD 23940

conditions for AD 23740

rationale AD 238

data collection period: see data collection period (AD 2 and AD 3)

as detailed version of GATT VI GATT 494, AD 321

domestic production of like product, assessment of effect on (AD 3.6)

determination of dumping (AD 2.1) and AD 40

sectoral analysis, right to AD 28890

“dumping” / “margin of dumping”: see “dumping”/ “margin of dumping” (AD 2.1)

evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4)

adequacy of evaluation AD 264

all relevant economic factors and indices having a bearing on AD 243

checklist approach AD 2656

eventual relevance of factor, relevance AD 248, 251

“factors affecting domestic prices” AD 2701

factors not involving material injury, right to consider AD 298

factors not listed in AD 3.4, right/obligation to consider AD 2536

grammatical structure, relevance AD 247, 250

“growth” AD 272

“having a bearing on” AD 257, 269

“including” AD 247, 249

“or” AD 247, 250

“profits” AD 269

SG 4.2(a) factors and AD 247 n. 343, 251

“shall include” (mandatory/illustrative nature of list) AD 24752

consideration of each factor to be “apparent” in final determination AD 248, 2613

consideration as a whole AD 252

“domestic industry”

companies outside domestic industry, relevance AD 2456, 328

domestic producers outside selected example, relevance AD 244, 328

selective and inconsistent approach to AD 215

“evaluation” AD 25860

examination of other known factors (AD 3.5) AD 248

illustrative nature of list AD 282

“known” to investigating authority AD 278

“objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1) and AD 194, 2089, 243

opportunity for defence of interests (AD 6.2) and AD 464

sectoral analysis, right to AD 1945, 243

written record of analysis, need for AD 2678

“injury” (AG 3 footnote 9), domestic industry (AD 4) and AD 176, 325, 336

merged companies and SCM 432

methodology, right to choose AD 183, 219, 231

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1) AD 181209, 21013

AD 17.6 (standard of review) distinguished AD 187

admissibility of undisclosed evidence AD 1857, 91718

domestic industry, use of information relating to AD 215

“dumped imports” and AD 2007, 241, 277

margin of dumping not greater than de minimis AD 206

“effect of the dumped imports on prices” (AD 3.2) AD 226

evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4) AD 194, 243, 2701

exclusion of “like” product as breach AD 217, 225

“facts, not merely allegation, conjecture or remote possibility” requirement (AD 3.7) and AD 186

non-attribution obligation and AD 216

“objective examination” AD 193

“consequent impact” (AD 3.1(b)) AD 209

industry as a whole, need to examine AD 187

“positive evidence” AD 1824

price analysis and AD 205

sampling (AD 6.10) and AD 1989, 2034

significant increase in dumped imports analysis (AD 3.2) AD 21013, 2323

sunset review (AD 11.3), applicability to AD 768

use of different periods for data collection and AD 1723, 180

volume and price effects (AD 3.2) AD 21013

significant increase in dumped imports (AD 3.2)

cumulative analysis (AD 3.3), applicability AD 236

effect at regional level, sufficiency AD 227

“effect of the dumped imports on prices”, objective assessment AD 226

frequency of analysis AD 221

imports from other suppliers, relevance AD 217, 225

margin of dumping greater than de minimis, limitation to AD 206

merged companies and SCM 432

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1) AD 21013, 2323

price undercutting/suppression analysis AD 205 n. 277, 220, 2303

“shall consider” AD 224

“significant”, alternative formulations AD 224, 256 n. 360

threat of material injury (AD 3.7)

AD 3.2 and SCM 15.2 factors and AD 301

AD 3.4 factors and AD 298301

AD 5.3 and AD 3636

“facts, not merely allegation, conjecture or remote possibility” AD 186

a “clearly foreseen and imminent” change of circumstances, need for AD 2912, 302

“consideration” of facts AD 2935

“likelihood of substantially increased importation” (AD 3.7(i)) AD 296

positive evidence requirement (AD 3.1) AD 186

“material injury would occur” / “consequent impact” AD 297301

as responsibility of authorities AD 302, 320

“special care” requirement (AD 3.8/SCM 15.8) AD 3056, SCM 4512

underlying principles (AD 3.1) AD 16970, 1778, 181


determination of injury (SCM 15)

“all relevant economic factors” (SCM 15.4) SCM 43942

domestic industry definition (SCM 16), relevance SCM 442

causal relationship between subsidized imports and injury to domestic injury (SCM 15.5 and footnote 47)

non-attribution of other factors SCM 444, 44550

identity of AD 3.5 provisions/applicability of jurisprudence relating to SCM 4456

“subsidization” and injury caused by “subsidized imports” distinguished SCM 372, 4434

“through the effects of the subsidy” SCM 44350

“through the effects of the subsidy” (SCM 19.1), identity of meaning SCM 461

data collection period (SCM 15.1/15.2) SCM 423, 438

identity of AD 3 provisions/applicability of jurisprudence relating to SCM 421, 4456

“injury” (SCM 15 footnote 45) SCM 372

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (SCM 15.1)

see also determination of injury (AD 3), “positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1)

“objective examination” SCM 4212

as underlying principle SCM 421

price effect determination (SCM 15.2) SCM 4337

non-attribution of factors other than subject imports SCM 434

obligation to examine other factors, whether SCM 437

price undercutting SCM 433, 4356

existence vs cause of SCM 435

methodology for determining SCM 436

significant increase in subsidized imports (SCM 15.2) SCM 42931

threat of injury (SCM 15.8), “special care” requirement (AD 3.8/SCM 15.8) SCM 451

underlying principles (SCM 15.1) and SCM 422


determination of serious injury or threat of, definitions (SG 4.1)

see also “like or directly competitive product” (SG 2.1/SG 4.1(c))

“serious injury” (SG 4.1(a))

current serious injury SG 122

“material injury” (AD 3, SCM 15.7 and GATT VI) distinguished GATT 483, SG 3, 117

quota modulation and (SG 5.2(b)) SG 234

as “significant overall impairment” / “very high standard of injury” SG 11621, 180

“serious injury” (SG 4.1(a))/ “threat of serious injury” (SG 4.1(b))

“clearly imminent” SG 1235, 156

“serious injury” SG 124

simultaneous determinations SG 128

“threat of serious injury” (SG 4.1(b)) SG 1239

actual increase in imports, need for SG 1267

data from recent past/throughout investigation period, relative importance SG 125, 1578


determination of serious injury or threat of, evaluation of all relevant factors of objective and quantifiable nature (SG 4.2(a)) AD 914 n. 1246, SG 11821, 14071

all factors listed in SG 4.2(a) SG 1436

“as a whole” SG 121

consistency of interpretation between SG 4.2(a) and SG 4.2(b) SG 142

evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4) and AD 247 n. 343, 251

factors not listed in SG 4.2(a), right/obligation to examine SG 1645

“factors other than increased imports” (SG 4.2(b)) SG 58, 74, 77, 1738, 176

imports from excluded sources as SG 74, 778

non-attribution requirement, 14.197–214, 14.331–2: see also determination of injury (AD 3), evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4)

order of analysis, relevance SG 214

factors relating to imports and domestic industry SG 1412, 207

obligation of competent authorities to seek information additional to that supplied by interested parties/ “investigate” AD 914 n. 1246, SG 924, 165, 309

“productivity” SG 163

segmented domestic industry and SG 1669

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement and SG 168


determination of serious injury or threat of (SG 4), requirements

see also “like or directly competitive product” (SG 2.1/SG 4.1(c)); MFN treatment (GATS II), determination of violation, requirements; national treatment, services and service suppliers (GATS XVII), determination of violation, requirements; national treatment, tax discrimination (GATT III:2), determination of violation, elements (GATT III:2, first sentence)

customs unions and free trade areas (GATT XXIV) exception and GATT 1057

“such increased quantities”

“rate and amount of the increase … in absolute and relative terms” (SG 4.2(a)) SG 258

trends SG 2630, 425, 15961, 170


developing countries: see also under in addition to immediately following headings balance of payments difficulties, developing countries’ right to take import measures (GATT XVIII:B); developing countries (AD 15); developing countries’ economic development purposes/financial and trade needs (LIC 1.2); dispute settlement, special provisions relating to developing countries; Enabling Clause (EC), special treatment of least-developed countries (EC 2(d)); special and differential treatment for developing countries (Doha); special and differential treatment (VAL 20/VAL, Annex III); technical cooperation and capacity building (Doha); Trade, Debt and Finance Working Group (Doha); Trade and Environment Committee (WTO IV:7); trade and environment (Doha 31–3)


developing countries (AD 15)

“anti-dumping duties” AD 862

provisional duty or security (AD 10.3) distinguished AD 862

“constructive remedy”

decision not to impose anti-dumping duties AD 857

lesser duty or price undertaking AD 858, 861

“shall be explored” AD 85961

whether “material” for purpose of AD 12.2 AD 846

obligations (first sentence) AD 8545

Tokyo Round Anti-Dumping Code (Art. 13) compared AD 854 n. 1152


Anti-Dumping Practices Committee Recommendation (2002) AD 853

Doha Declaration AD 852

“special regard” AD 856


developing countries (AG preamble/AG 6.2) AG 4, 77


developing countries (DSU 21.2) (implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings) DSU 100713

“reasonable period” (DSU 21.3(c)) DSU 100713, 10645, 106771


developing countries’ economic development purposes/financial and trade needs (LIC 1.2)

automatic import licensing, delay in application (LIC 2) LIC 1718

invocations LIC 17

legal significance LIC 710

trade-restrictive or trade-distortive effects (LIC 3.2) and LIC 3, 9


developing countries (GATS IV)

electronic commerce and GATS 49

enquiry/contact points (GATS IV:2) GATS 47, 501

telecommunications, right to place reasonable conditions on GATS 256


developing countries (GPA V) GPA 20


developing countries (SCM 27)

actionable subsidies (SCM 27.9), nullification or impairment claims, limitation to SCM 569

de minimis subsidization threshold (SCM 27.10 and 27.11) SCM 570

exemption from SCM 3.1(a) (transitional period) (SCM 27.3)

as authorization of prohibited subsidies (GATT III:2) SCM 535

termination SCM 536

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I item (k)) and SCM 526

phase out/standstill obligation (SCM 27.4)

applicability (Annex VII)

graduation methodology SCM 6814

Honduras, addition SCM 680

as non-actionable subsidy (para. 10.2) SCM 342

re-inclusion SCM 685

benchmark period (SCM 27.4 footnote 55) SCM 546

burden of proof SCM 1546, 5534

constant or nominal values as determining factor SCM 545

export competitiveness (SCM 27.6)

exemption from export subsidies (SCM 3.1(a)) and SCM 530

request for calculation by Secretariat SCM 563

extension of transition period, Decision on Procedures (Doha) WTO 56, SCM 530, 5558

adoption WTO 56, 67

relative competitiveness and SCM 530

“grant” (SCM 27.4 footnote 55) SCM 1747, 5423

actual expenditure, limitation to SCM 5478

“inconsistent with its development needs”, responsibility for determining SCM 5502

inflation, relevance SCM 545

“prohibited” subsidy status (SCM 3.1(a)) and SCM 1546, 527

SCM 25, relevance SCM 524, 530

SCM 27.2(b) and SCM 154, 5278, 532

SCM 27.5 and SCM 5636

“shall phase out” SCM 53941

serious prejudice (SCM 27.8) SCM 568

subsidies, importance to economic development programmes (SCM 27.1) WTO 4


developing countries (SG 9)

exclusion of developing country exporting less than de minimis levels (SG 9.1) SG 2467

as exception to general SG rules SG 68 n. 114

expected effect of measure, relevance SG 247

list of excluded countries, need for SG 246


developing countries (SPS 4), equivalence SPS 118


developing countries (SPS 7), procedure to “Enhance Transparency of Special and Differential Treatment in Favour of developing countries” (SPS 10) SPS 364


developing countries (TRIMs 4)

extension of transition periods (TRIMs 5.3) TRIMs 325

General Council direction to give positive consideration to TRIMs 32

special and differential treatment, implementation issues TRIMs 412

TRIMs 2.1 and TRIMs 22


developing countries (TRIPS)

exclusive marketing rights (TRIPS 70.9), right to delay application (TRIPS 65.2) TRIPS 293

pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products, patent protection (TRIPS 70.8), right to delay (TRIPS 65.2) TRIPS 293

right to delay application (TRIPS 65) TRIPS 186, 2889, 292


developing countries (WTO Preamble) (positive efforts to secure a share in growth of international trade) WTO 47

“commensurate with” WTO 7

“positive efforts” WTO 46


directly competitive or substitutable products (GATT III:2)

2.286–305: see also determination of serious injury or threat of (SG 4), requirements, “like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4), national treatment, tax discrimination (GATT III:2), transitional safeguards (ATC 6), serious damage or actual threat of (ATC 6.2), “domestic industry producing like and/or directly competitive products”

competition and trade law distinguished GATT 206

“directly” GATT 297, ATC 40, 45

as dynamic relationship (including possibility of latent demand) GATT 2917, 335

GATT practice GATT 304

“like products” distinguished/as sub-category GATT 234, 2526, 32830

“like products” as subset GATT 303

methodology of comparison, “grouping” approach GATT 299302

nullification or impairment, evidence of DSU 90

object and purpose GATT 290, 2924

ordinary meaning GATT 2912

relevant factors GATT 298300

distribution channels GATT 299

end-uses GATT 298

interchangeability ATC 45

market situation in other countries GATT 289

nature of product GATT 298

physical properties GATT 2989

potential to compete as determining factor GATT 234, ATC 45

tariff classifications GATT 298


Director-General (WTO)

appointment as WTO 171

rules and procedures WTO 172

Director-General GATT 1947 as WTO 2845

holders of office WTO 171

role and responsibilities

chair of Trade Negotiations Committee WTO 155

consultation with respect to technical cooperation and capacity building WTO 111

depositary functions WTO 267

as head of WTO WTO 168


disclosure of confidential information (GATS IIIbis) GATS 48


discrimination: see arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination, GATT XX measure as (GATT XX chapeau); arbitrary or unjustifiable distinctions resulting in discrimination or disguised restriction on international trade (SPS 5.5); Enabling Clause; MFN treatment (GATS II); MFN treatment (GATT I); MFN treatment (TRIPS 4); national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4); national treatment, tax discrimination (GATT III:2); non-discriminatory administration of QRs (GATT XIII); SPS Agreement, basic rights and obligations (SPS 2)


dispute settlement (AIR) AIR 301


dispute settlement and enforcement (GATS XXIII)

Decision on Certain Dispute Settlement Procedures for GATS (1994) GATS 206

roster of panellists, decision not to appoint GATS 207

nullification and impairment (DSU 3.8) distinguished GATS 2034, DSU 99100


dispute settlement (GATT XXIV, Understanding 12) GATT 10414


dispute settlement (PSI 8) PSI 28


dispute settlement (SCM 30)

see also consultations (SCM 4.1–4); request for establishment of panel, requirements (SCM 4.4)

special or additional rules or procedures, whether SCM 578

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6), applicability SCM 578


dispute settlement (SG 14) SG 30410

China and: see transitional safeguard measures (SG) (China) (Accession Protocol 16)

DSU 11, applicability GATT 800, SG 109, 14753, 30510, 313

standard of review (DSU 11)

evidence, alleged disregard or distortion by panel, obligation to examine and evaluate all the evidence available to it SG 147, 306

“objective assessment of the facts”

de novo review, exclusion VAL 19 n. 34, SG 147, 305, 308

reasoned and adequate explanation (SG 4.2(a)) and GATT 801, VAL 19 n. 34, SG 14851, 3079


dispute settlement, special provisions relating to developing countries

extension of periods established under DSU 4.7 and 8 (DSU 12.10) DSU 71315

requirement for specific indication of form in which account has been taken of special needs (DSU 12.11) DSU 71619


dispute settlement (TRIPS 64)

DSU, applicability (DSU 1.1) DSU 4, 1551

non-application of non-violation complaints (TRIPS 64.3)


Council for TRIPS Agreement, role WTO 65

Ministerial Conference, role WTO 65

non-violation and situation complaints, moratorium TRIPS 2826, DSU 1551


dispute settlement/enforcement of specific obligations, exclusion (TRMS A(i)) TPRM 3, 56


dissemination of information, Integrated Data Base (IDB) and Consolidated Tariff Schedules (CTS) database WTO 135, GATT 1856


documents: see WTO documents, General Council Decisions on circulation and derestriction


Doha Development Agenda

Cancún stocktaking WTO 58

Global Trust Fund WTO 188


Doha Round decisions

ACP–EC Partnership Agreement WTO 56, 67

Implementation-Related Issues and Concerns: see Decision on implementation-related concerns (2000)

Procedures for Extensions under Article 27.4 for certain developing country Members: see developing countries (SCM 27), phase out/standstill obligation (SCM 27.4)

summary WTO 389

Transitional Regime for the EC Autonomous Tariff Rate Quotas on Imports of Bananas WTO 56, 67


Doha Round/Work Programme (Doha 17–52)

Decision on Measures in Favour of Least-Developed Countries (Doha) and WTO 311

July package (2004) WTO 39, 58

residual responsibility for implementation issues WTO 156

structure as established by TNC WTO 156

Ministerial Conference guidance/discussion, Hong Kong WTO 59

negotiations, organization and management (paras. 45–52)

see also market access for non-agricultural products (Doha 16), Negotiating Group on Market Access, Negotiating Group on Rules, progressive liberalization negotiations (GATS XIX:3 and Doha 15), Trade Negotiations Committee (TNC)


“domestic industry” (AD 4)

see also sampling (AD 6.10)

“a major proportion of the total domestic production” (AD 4.1) AD 32935

AD 5.4 and AD 380

“domestic producers” (AD 4.1) AD 3278

authorities’ discretion in choosing AD 335

exclusion of producers not making themselves known before deadline AD 334

single domestic producer, applicability to AD 327

“injury” (AG 3 footnote 9) and AD 176, 325

interpretation in accordance with AD 4.1, obligation AD 337


“domestic injury” (SCM 16)

determination of injury (SCM 15) and SCM 422

“domestic industry” (SG 4.1(c)) distinguished SCM 453

material injury to domestic industry or threat of (GATT VI:6(a)) and GATT 483

ordinary meaning SCM 4534

“producers” (SCM 16.1) SCM 4534


domestic law

see also conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with WTO obligations, obligation to ensure (WTO XVI:4); legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4)

burden of proof DSU 578

characterization of transactions, appropriateness as applicable law DSU 528, 1625

as determinant of date of “initiation” SCM 356

as evidence of

compliance with international obligations DSU 5267, 532, 847

Certain German Interests in Polish Upper Silesia DSU 526

determination as legal issue DSU 847

interpretation of legislation distinguished DSU 5267, 529 n. 861

state practice DSU 526

as fact for purposes of international adjudication AD 602 n. 836, DSU 52633

decisions of domestic courts, applicability DSU 529

unfinished proceedings, relevance DSU 529

legislative history, relevance DSU 530

interpretation of covered agreements, relevance to DSU 16238

as supplementary means (VCLT 32) DSU 1655 n. 2588, 1655 n. 2589

as justification for failure to fulfil international obligations, exclusion (VCLT 27) SCM 241, GATS 140, TRIPS 5, DSU 151620


domestic regulation (GATS VI)

accountancy services and GATS 45, 601

electronic commerce and GATS 58


domestic support (AG 3): see agricultural concessions and commitments (AG 3)


domestic support commitments (AG 6)

“considered to be in compliance” (AG 6.3) AG 79

SMC 3.1(b) and AG 79, 1934

Mid-Term Review Agreement (developing countries) (preamble/AG 6.2) AG 77


Dominican Republic — Import and Sale of Cigarettes (AB), WT/DS302/AB/R

General Exceptions (GATT XX(d)), measures necessary to secure compliance with GATT-consistent measure, constituent elements

“necessary” to secure compliance, balancing of factors GATT 918

“reasonably available” alternative WTO-consistent measure GATT 9302

balancing of factors GATT 9301

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), measure terminated in course of proceedings/no longer in existence DSU 933


Dominican Republic — Import and Sale of Cigarettes (Panel), WT/DS302/R

burden of proof (general rules)

defences and exceptions, GATT XV:9(a) GATT 707

exception/affirmative defence GATT 707

exchange arrangements (IMF/WTO) (GATT XV)

consultations (GATT XV:2)

dispute settlement and GATT 703

IMF findings, status GATT 705

“exchange controls or exchange restrictions” (GATT XV:9(a))

burden of proof (as exception/affirmative defence) GATT 707

criteria for determining GATT 708

IMF obligation to inform WTO of decisions relating to, measures other than exchange restrictions, applicability to GATT 712

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “less favourable treatment”, formal equality GATT 373

preparatory work (VCLT 32), GATT II:1(b) GATT 148

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X)

“laws, regulations, judicial decisions and administrative rulings” (GATT X:1) GATT 512

“shall be published” (GATT X:1) GATT 530

uniform, impartial and reasonable administration (GATT X:3(a))

“reasonable” GATT 574

“uniform”, “impartial” and “reasonable” as independent elements GATT 550

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II)

“other duties or charges” (ODCs) (GATT II:1(b))

definition GATT 148

foreign exchange fees GATT 150, 151

import surcharges GATT 150

recording pursuant to Understanding on Article II:1(b) GATT 152

Understanding on Article II:1(b), recording of “other duties and charges” GATT 152


double remedies

anti-dumping vs countailing duties/exclusion of double remedy (GATT VI:5) GATT 4801, SCM 466, DSU 1617

notification to all interested parties of essential facts (SCM 12.8) and SCM 395


double taxation measures, justification (Illustrative List, SCM Annex I (item (e)) footnote 59)

applicable law/Member’s right to determine applicable rules SCM 6056, 608

international tax law principles SCM 610

burden of proof SCM 613

“foreign-source income” SCM 15960, 604, 606, 6089

design, structure and architecture of measures, relevance SCM 607

international tax law principles and SCM 610

nexus between income and activities in foreign State, need for SCM 61112


drafting history: see preparatory work (VCLT 32)



access to, limitation to WTO Members DSU 516

appointment of officers WTO 77

collegiate/collective entity DSU 1148 n. 1802

communications to DSB Chairman, procedure DSU 36


consensus requirement (DSU 2.4) DSU 33

initiation of SCM Annex V procedure, whether DSU 33

functions (DSU 2.1)

accordingly the DSB shall have authority” (DSU 2.1) DSU 32

adoption of Panel and AB reports WTO 76

authorization of suspension of concessions and other obligations under the covered agreements WTO 76

establishment of panels WTO 76

surveillance of implementation of rulings and recommendations WTO 76

GATT acquis, commitment to adhere to (DSU 3.1) DSU 40, 278

General Council as WTO 76

proper parties DSU 516

Rules of Conduct: see Rules of Conduct (RoC)

rules of procedure (1995)

adoption WTO 77, DSU 34

text DSU 35

Special Session for the negotiation of improvements to and clarifications of the DSU

establishment WTO 78, 156

responsibility for negotiations WTO 156

“single undertaking” principle, as exception to WTO 78

statements by Members at DSB meetings, legal effect DSU 2631

authorized statements for the record DSU 26

“mutually agreed solution” (DSU 3.6), whether DSU 27

as prohibited unilateral action (DSU 23.1) DSU 29, 1313, 1689

“taking note” of, legal effect DSU 301

time-periods, computation

“date of circulation” DSU 37

expiring on a weekend or holiday DSU 38


DSU, applicability

bilateral agreements DSU 41921

EC — Korea Agreed Minutes DSU 7

EC–US Agreement (1992) DSU 420

Oilseeds Agreement (EC–Brazil) DSU 6

covered agreements (DSU 1.1/DSU 7.2) DSU 18

AD Agreement DSU 23

AIR Agreement AIR 3, 301

DSU (as covered agreement) DSU 45

TRIPS Agreement DSU 4, 1551

international agreements other than covered agreements DSU 421


DSU dispute settlement

compulsory (panel proceedings) vs consensual (consultations, mediation, good offices and arbitration) DSU 1339

“contentious act” distinguished (DSU 3.10) DSU 102

expeditious arbitration as alternative means (DSU 25.1) DSU 1329, 1337, 13389

good faith engagement in: see good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10)

hierarchical structure DSU 835

obligation to have recourse to (DSU 23.1)

see also unilateral action by Member, prohibition (DSU 23.1)

as “exclusive jurisdiction” clause DSU 1306, 1310

prohibition of suspensions prior to completion of DSU 22 procedures DSU 1317

“recourse to, and abide by” DSU 1306, 131011

referral to the WCO DSU 1311

“seeking redress of WTO violation” DSU 13059

suspension of concessions (DSU 22) as DSU 13089

temporary nature of suspension of concessions (DSU 22) and DSU 1319

waiver of rights, possibility of DSU 1304

“positive solution to a dispute” as aim (DSU 3.7) DSU 78, 438

table showing disputes by covered agreement DSU 1746

time-frame (DSU 12.8, 12.9, 17.5 and 20)

indicative nature DSU 710, 995

DSU 21.5 distinguished DSU 711

time-frame (DSU 20)

separate panel reports (DSU 9.2) and DSU 994

table DSU 443, 834, 996


due diligence requirement: see transitional safeguards (ATC 6), serious damage or actual threat of (ATC 6.2), due diligence


due process (anti-dumping measures) (AD 6)

balance of interests considerations AD 438, 4434, 512, 514, 583, 598, 604, 606, 639

opportunity for defence of interests (AD 6.2) AD 461

time limits and AD 438

as underlying principle AD 80, 186, 4256


due process (application of trade measures)

see also public notice and explanation of determinations (AD 12), as due process requirement

objective criteria, need for GATT 869


due process (countervailing duty investigation) (SCM 12.7) SCM 390


due process (dispute settlement proceedings)

see also margin of discretion [in accordance with due process] (panel) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3); third party rights

amicus curiae briefs and DSU 744

arbitration (DSU 22.6) and DSU 1183, 1210

Article 21.5 proceedings DSU 11434

clear presentation of the problem (DSU 6.2)/ability to defend itself and: see request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), due process/ability to defend itself considerations

consultations (ATC 6.10) ATC 76

disclosure obligation DSU 573

expert evidence and SPS 4234, DSU 601, 613, 1478

good faith obligation (DSU 3.10) DSU 122, 345

late submission of evidence DSU 729

new argumentation, cut-off date DSU 327, 730

notice of appeal (ABWP 20(2)(d)) and DSU 368, 14089

notification of nature of case DSU 187

objective assessment obligations (DSU 11) and DSU 613, 61821, 680

opportunity to respond to evidence/presentations of other parties SCM 188, 190, DSU 327, 343, 360, 618, 6234, 676, 67980, 694

good faith (DSU 3.10) and DSU 122

timing of submission of evidence (DS 12) and DSU 6228

panel reports, rationale/reasons (DSU 12.7) and DSU 7034

panel working procedures, need for DSU 236, 346, 6703

panel’s discretion on matters of procedure (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3) DSU 4901

prejudice to party, relevance DSU 29, 94, 187, 194, 200 n. 269, 202, 203, 220, 236, 266, 311, 314, 320, 325, 327, 329, 344, 346, 377, 417, 449, 467, 472, 488, 508 n. 828, 665, 670, 674, 734, 749


due restraint (AG 13) (“peace clause”)

domestic support measures conforming with AG 6 (AG 13(b)) AG 133

calculation of AMS (AG 1(a)/Annex 3) AG 144

countervailing duties (AG 13 footnote 4) AG 138

“due restraint” (AG 13(b)(i)) AG 137

elements/order of analysis AG 135

“exempt from actions” (AG 13(b)(ii)) AG 139

“grant” (AG 13(b)(ii)) AG 140

“injury or threat of” (AG 13(b)(i)) AG 136

“measures … not grant[ing] support to a specific commodity” (AG 13(b)(ii)) AG 1413

“that decided during the 1992 marketing year” AG 1457

export subsidies conforming with AG Part V (AG 13(c)) AG 149

green box measures (AG Annex 2) (AG 13(a)) AG 133

Annex 2, para. 6(b) and 6(e) distinguished AG 198

Annex 2, para. 11 and AG 199

Decision on implementation-related concerns (2000) AG 150

exemption from GATT XVI and SCM Part III AG 134

measures not qualifying as (Annex 2, para. 6(b)) AG 1967

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2) and DSU 11

structure AG 133


“dumping” / “margin of dumping” (AD 2.1)

see also determination of dumping (AD 2); determination of injury (AD 3)

as exporter-specific concepts GATT 453, AD 6904

AD 9.3 and AD 6904

“for purposes of this agreement” /identity of meaning throughout AD Agreement AD 1619, 242, 404

product specific requirement AD 1719

sampling technique and AD 2002


“dumping” (AD 2.1), ambiguity/alternatives AD 9345


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